What is Lightening?
The lightening of skin, also called hyperpigmentation, is a lightening of dark pigments or melanin pigment. The pigment melanin, found in the skin, is made up of a group of smaller units called melanin pigments, each one being a specific type of melanin. Each melanin pigment has a different color (reddish orange to red) and can change the tone of the skin, depending on the amount of melanin in the skin. When you apply a product, the pigment is broken down and its components, which are called coagulation agents, are then combined to make a product that has a brightening effect.
The pigment melanin is composed of one or more molecules that can be divided into three types. The first and simplest is called the triad of melanin. This is the most common type found in human skin. It is a yellow to red pigment. The second type is called melanin pigment A. This is a greenish-white to yellow pigment. Melanin pigment B is also found in the skin. It has the same appearance as melanin A, except that it is also very fine. Melanin B does not change color, and is also present on the skin, but not as many people notice it as it is with melanin A.